Energianvändning i växthus 2011
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During the past decade, Swedish greenhouse cultivation has seen a continual structural and energy use transformation. As the number of holdings and the cultivated area has decreased, energy use has been reduced, streamlined and has changed character. The present report is a description of the current energy use pattern in the Swedish greenhouse business, as well as an overview of changes since 2002. The focus lies on the – from an area perspective – major branches: tomato-, cucumber- and ornamental plant cultivation.
Between 2002 and 2011, the number of Swedish commercial greenhouse holdings has been reduced by 40 %, while the cultivated area has decreased by 12 %. During the same period, energy consumption for cultivation has been reduced from about 1,2 TWh to just over 0,6 TWh. The relatively large decrease in energy consumption as compared to cultivation area, signifies an increased energy efficiency. For the entire greenhouse cultivation, energy consumption was reduced from 371 to 215 kWh per square meter during the 2002–2011 period. For the specific branches, the decreased amounted to 21 %, 54 % and 58 % for tomato-, cucumber and ornamental plant cultivation, respectively.
The use of various energy sources exhibited a distinct alteration between 2002 and 2011. The share of fossil fuels decreased from 77 % of the total energy consumption in 2002, to 43 % in 2011. Meanwhile, the share of biofuels increased from 5 % to 37 % of the energy used. Tomato- and cucumber cultivation exhibited a biofuel share of 55 % and 56 %, respectively, while the use of biofuels in the cultivation of ornamental plants reached 31 %. Holdings exhibiting different energy source use profiles also exhibited some general differences regarding cultivation branch, geographic location, greenhouse size and use of materials.
Even as the change in direction towards a higher share of biofuels in the energy mix appears clear, changes on a holding level are more complex. While 95 holdings increased their share of biofuel use between 2008 and 2011, 61 holdings simultaneously decreased their share. During the same period, 161 and 140 holdings increased their share of fossil and miscellaneous energy sources, respectively, while 174 and 172 holding decreased their share of the these energy sources.